Jharkhand is a State which is known for its natural resource and biodiversity. Mushroom is one very important component and in last few decades, it is gaining importance because of many reasons. After gaining self sufficiency in food grains, nutrition has become another point of concern. In our country, food is more inclined towards carbohydrate and fats, whereas protein still remains a neglected ingredient. Importance of protein has been undoubtedly accepted. Whatever source of protein which is available, is very costly and is out of reach for poor rural population. Mushroom on the other hand, is a very good option as protein source. Jharkhand having approximately 30% forest cover is a State where 100s of varieties of mushrooms are available. It is unfortunate however that main and the most popular varieties of mushroom are only two i.e. Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The authors have tried to provide a glimpse of mushroom diversity in Jharkhand. The book also tries to open a new vista for mushroom cultivators. In this way, mushroom cultivation will also be helpful in socio-economic upliftment of society. The important mushrooms of Jharkhand have been categorized in edible, non edible and poisonous categories. A brief note of nutritional content of these varieties is also present.