Born in Lucknow on 12th January 1939 and educated at St. Vincents High School. Pune, India. Entered the National Defence Academy, Kharakwasla, Pune in June 1955 and passed out from the Indian Military Academy, Dehradun in December 1959. He was commissioned into the Jammu and Kashmir Rifle Regiment, saw action against the Chinese in 1962, and against Pakistan in 1965. Postgraduate in Defence Studies from the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow.