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Differential Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits

Author(s): Hari Kumar Singh
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  • Language:
  • English
  • Genre(s):
  • Other Textbooks
  • ISBN13:
  • 9789391522841
  • ISBN10:
  • 939152284X
  • Format:
  • Paperback
  • Trim:
  • 8x10
  • Pages:
  • 94
  • Publication date:
  • 17-Aug-2021
  •   Available, Ships in 3-5 days
  •   10 Days Replacement Policy
  •   Sold & Fullfilled by WalnutPublication
Book Blurb

Modern differential amplifiers are usually implemented with a basic two-transistor circuit called a “long-tailed” pair or differential pair. This circuit was originally implemented using a pair of vacuum tubes. The circuit works the same way for all three-terminal devices with current gain. The “long tail” resistor circuit bias points are largely determined by Ohm's Law and less so by active component characteristics. The long-tailed pair was developed from earlier knowledge of push-pull circuit techniques and measurement bridges. An early circuit which closely resembles a long-tailed pair was published by British neurologist Bryan Matthews in 1934, and it seems likely that this was intended to be a true long-tailed pair but was published with a drawing error. The earliest definite long-tailed pair circuit appears in a patent submitted by Alan Blumlein in 1936. By the end of the 1930s the topology was well established and had been described by various authors including Frank Offner (1937), Otto Schmitt (1937) and Jan Friedrich Toennies (1938) and it was particularly used for detection and measurement of physiological impulses. The long-tailed pair was very successfully used in early British computing, most notably the Pilot ACE model and descendants, Maurice Wilkes’ EDSAC, and probably others designed by people who worked with Blumlein or his peers. The long-tailed pair has many favorable attributes if used as a switch: largely immune to tube (transistor) variations (of great importance when machines contained 1,000 tubes or more), high gain, gain stability, high input impedance, medium/low output impedance, good clipper (with a not-too-long tail), non-inverting (EDSAC contained no inverters!) and large output voltage swings. One disadvantage is that the output voltage swing (typically ±10–20 V) was imposed upon a high DC voltage (200 V or so), requiring care in signal coupling, usually some form of wide-band DC coupling. Many computers of this time tried to avoid this problem by using only AC-coupled pulse logic, which made them very large and overly complex (ENIAC: 18,000 tubes for a 20 digit calculator) or unreliable. DC-coupled circuitry became the norm after the first generation of vacuum tube computers. A differential amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that amplifies the difference between two input voltages but suppresses any voltage common to the two inputs. It is an analog circuit with two inputs and and one output in which the output is ideally proportional to the difference between the two voltages.

Hari Kumar Singh
Hari Kumar Singh

Dr. Hari Kumar Singh (1978) has completed his Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering in 2000 from F.E.T, M J P Rohilkhand University, Bareilly Uttar Pradesh. In 2002 he completed his Master of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering from National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, Haryana. He received his PhD Degree in 2017 from Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, IFTM University, Moradabad (U.P.) India in field of Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing.

In 2008 he was appointed as Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, M. J. P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly. He has served various reputed institutions where he was engaged in Teaching UG and PG students of B.Tech and M.Tech degree courses. He has more than 18 Years of Teaching/Research Experience.

He has Delivered Invited talks and chaired a Session and organized various National and International Conferences. He has edited more than four Books. He has more than 50 Publications in various conferences and International Journals in different fields of Engineering and Technology. He is the member of various National and International Professional Societies.

His Field of interest includes Signal and Image Processing, Digital Systems Design, Microelectronics, Remote Sensing and Artificial Neural Network.


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